Enclosed with this manual are:
Figure 1. EMSCOPE picture.
EMSCOPE is an EMZER’s instrument for ElectroMagnetic Interference (EMI) measurements that combines a 2-channel EMI-Test Receiver with a 16-A single-phase dual-port V-network Line Impedance Stabilization Network (LISN) and two Transient Limiters (one for each channel of the EMI receiver). EMSCOPE has been optimally designed and manufactured to be compliant to CISPR 16-1-1, CISPR 16-1-2 and MIL-STD-461E International Standards for measurements of conducted electromagnetic interference from 9 kHz up to 110 MHz.
EMSCOPE integrates the peak, quasi-peak and average detectors fully compliant to CISPR 16-1-1, which can be run in parallel and real time, considerably reducing the measurement time when compared to any other option. Additionally, it is possible to simultaneously measure the line and neutral emissions, or the common-mode and differential-mode (modal) emissions with the three detectors running simultaneously. Modal-emission measurements are fundamental to know the dominant mode and to implement the suitable power-line filter accordingly, using fewer components and getting a cheaper design.
EMSCOPE can be connected to a LAN or reached by direct connection (using the supplied optical fibre), and it is remotely controlled using any standard web browser, without the necessity of any additional software. The web-based application installed in EMSCOPE exhibits a very friendly and intuitive interface that makes any kind of measurement really easy to configurate.
Important! Before using the LISN, all safety requirements must be fulfilled.
EMSCOPE includes the following items:
Additionally to the multi-mode fiber to Ethernet converter, EMZER can supply a multi-mode fiber to USB converter to directly connect the computer to the EMSCOPE. The model supplied is:
Important! It is highly recommended to use this option with a USB-3.0 port.
EMSCOPE can be used with:
Table 1-1 lists the EMSCOPE performance specifications. The following conditions apply to all specifications:
|Table 1-1 Main Specifications of the EMI Receiver|
|Electrical Characteristic||Performance Limits|
| Frequency range / RBW Filter|
Resolution / RBW Filter
| 9 kHz to 150 kHz / 200 Hz
9 kHz to 150 kHz / 1 kHz
150 kHz to 30 MHz / 9 kHz
150 kHz to 30 MHz / 10 kHz
30 MHz to 110 MHz / 120kHz
113 Hz / 200Hz
509 Hz / 1kHz
5087 Hz / 9kHz
5087 Hz / 10kHz
30.52 kHz / 120kHz
≤ 2.5 ppm @operating temperature range
= 1.5 ppm @ 25ºC
| RF inputs|
| ZIN 50 Ω, N fem.
0 dB to 78 dB (1 dB step)
Built in up to 30 MHz.
1dB compression point: 23dBm
|Max input level (without equipment damage)||144 dBμV (5W, 37 dBm)|
| Noise level (Att. 22 dB, 50 Ω term., Hold Time 1 s) |
9kHz to 150kHz
9kHz to 150kHz
150kHz to 30MHz
150kHz to 30MHz
30MHz to 110MHz
< -9 dBμV (QP)
< -15 dBμV (AV)
Not defined (QP)
< -13 dBμV (AV)
< 7 dBμV (QP)
< 0 dBμV (AV)
Not defined (QP)
3 dBμV (AV)
< 27 dBμV (QP)
< 15 dBμV (AV)
|Detectors||Peak, Quasi-peak, CISPR Average (all can be run simultaneously on both lines, that is, up to 6 detectors), fully compliant to CISPR 16-1-1|
|Type of measurements||Physical (or circuit, i.e. line and neutral) and modal (common and differential mode) conducted emissions|
|Full spectrum measurement time||Equal to the measurement dwell time, which is totally configurable from 1s to 15s|
|Display units||dBm, dBmV, dBµV, Watts, Volts|
|Measurement accuracy for sinusoidal signals > 20 dB|| 9 kHz to 150 kHz / 200 Hz ± 1,0 dB
9 kHz to 150 kHz / 1 kHz ± 1,0 dB
150 kHz to 30 MHz / 9 kHz ± 1,0 dB
150 kHz to 30 MHz / 10 kHz ± 1,0 dB
30 MHz to 110 MHz / 120 kHz ± 1,0 dB
|CISPR 16-1-1 conformity|| Standard compliant QP detector down to 10 Hz PRF
Standard compliant Average detector down to 10 Hz PRF
|I/O Interface||SFP Optical|
|Operating temperature||0 °C to 40 °C|
|Power supply||110-240 VAC. Consumption: 25W max|
|Dimensions (W x H x D)||252 x 195 x 438 mm|
|Built in LISN||Fully compliant to 16-1-2 standards|
|Frequency range||9 kHz to 30 MHz|
|Continuous rated output current||Up to 16 A @ 230 VAC (socket dependent)*|
|Max permissible operating voltage||Up to 300 VAC – 325 VDC (socket dependent)*|
|EUT supply frequency range||DC to 60 Hz|
|CISPR equivalent circuit / Pre-filter Choke||50 Ω / / (50 μH + 5 Ω) / 250 μH|
|EUT Power connector / mains||Schuko socket (Type F) / IEC C20|
|Artificial Hand / connector type||510 Ω + 220 pF / 4 mm socket|
* Examples of sockets:
The front panel of the EMSCOPE is shown in the next figure.
Figure 2. Front panel.
Connectors and indicators of the front panel from top to bottom:
The equipment has 2 N female RF input 50 Ω connectors that permits the equipment to simultaneously measure 2 RF signals. Each RF input is internally protected from transient voltages by means of a transient limiter. The technical characteristics are described in the Main Specifications section.
The equipment has 2 N female RF output connectors. Each connector is the output of a channel of the artificial mains network (LISN). These connectors output the conducted interferences generated by the equipment under test and provide the means to measure them.
This socket is the output of the artificial mains power network of the LISN. It is the mains socket where the equipment under test must be connected to allow the measurement of its conducted emissions. The technical specifications of the LISN and its power handling capabilities are described under the Main specifications section.
This socket provides the RC network required to mimic the behaviour of a hand for a handheld equipment under test, as stated in the CISPR 16-1-2. This RC network is described in the Main Specifications section.
The rear panel of the equipment is shown in the next figure:
Figure 3. Rear panel.
Connectors of the rear panel from top to bottom:
The EMSCOPE features a completely new receiver architecture based on the most recent FPGA technology that includes a two port CISPR 16-1-2 LISN and two 10-dB transient limiters, and has been designed to be controlled using only a web browser, independently of the operating system and platform. No additional software is required.
In the CISPR bands A (9 kHz ÷ 150 kHz), B (150 kHz ÷ 30 MHz) and C (30 MHz ÷ 110 MHz) the standards require the use of specially shaped 200-Hz, 9-kHz and 120-kHz filters respectively (1-kHz and 10-kHz filters in the MIL-standard case). EMSCOPE makes use of internal numerically modelled filters in compliance with the norms, using FFT and signal processing techniques, which allows to perform compliance measurements with both standards (CISPR and MIL). Besides, it can provide simultaneous and real-time measurement results using the fully-compliant-to-CISPR-16-1-1 peak, quasi-peak and average detectors.
The fully-compliant-to-16-1-2-standard LISN integrated in the instrument allows performing conducted-emission measurements without the necessity of any other device, making of EMSCOPE a Fully Measurement Setup. Additionally, it can also be easily connected to other external LISNs, using its external N connectors, to perform EMI measurements according to any other standard. Thanks to its architecture and to the large internal computation capability, the EMSCOPE can perform a precise entire band test in a extremly short time. This feature is not only useful to greatly increase the productivity of the test lab, but also to make better and more comprehensive analysis in case the disturbance to be evaluated is somehow intermittent and with an irregular repetition rate. Since it is possible to perform a modal analysis of the interference, providing the common-mode and differential-mode measurements, it is really easy to design a suitable power-line filter for the EUT.
Additionally, EMSCOPE incorporates an oscilloscope mode to visualize the conducted emissions in time-domain, providing more information about the connected EUT.
Never remove the cover or any part of the housing. During operation, there exists accesible parts with DANGEROUS voltages inside the unit.
Do not insert any objects into the openings of the housing that are not intended to that purpose. This can cause short circuits inside or electric shocks/injuries.
The unit is not protected agains the penetration of liquids. Do not close any of the openings needed for ventilation.
Since the ventilation air flows from the botton side, the unit must be placed on a nonflammable base in order to prevent a fire in case of overheating.
Important! Over current protection is not provided. The LISN must be connected to a power mains which has an appropiately rated mains protection installed.
Important! Before putting into service ensure that:
Important! Earth connection: Precautions must be taken because, since the LISN is compliant to CISPR 16, it can not inherently adhere to the permitted leakage current limit value according to EN 61010-1 and basic insulation of a protection class I. Due to this inherent high leakage current to ground of this kind of equipment an additional protective earth connection must be supplied prior connecting the unit to the mains power supply. For this purpose, the equipment is provided with an earth grounding bar at the rear panel and additionally a protective earth screw is provided at the front.
In addition, due to this high leakage current (above 1 A), it is not possible to use a residual current operated circuit breaker. It is strongly recommended to use an isolating transformer.
A long-term operation with maximum load, the surface of the unit may become >60 ºC.
This section provides the information needed to install your EMSCOPE. It includes the information pertinent to initial inspection and power requirements, connections, operating environment, instrument mounting, cleaning, storage and shipment.
Important! Before connecting the equipment follow the provided Safety information section. Not following it can result in important damages, serious injuries and death.
When receiving the equipment, first inspect the shipping box for any damages. If the shipping box is damaged, it should be kept until the contents of the shipment have been checked for completeness and the instrument has been checked mechanically and electrically.
Verify the availability of all the shipped items with reference to the shipping check list enclosed with the User Manual. Notify any damage to the forwarder personnel as well as to your EMZER Representative.
To avoid further damage, do not turn on the instrument when there are signs of shipping damage to any portion of it.
The EMSCOPE EMI Receiver is a Safety Class I apparatus, and it is also equipped with protective/functional earth terminals on the rear and front panels. A good safety/functional ground connection should be provided before to operating the system.
Important! The EMSCOPE LISN constructed according to the standard CISPR 16 can NOT comply with the permissible leakage current limit stated in the IEC 61010 for a class I equipment. The instructions provided in the Safety Information section must be followed.
The universal adapter supplied with the receiver can work at either 50 Hz or 60 Hz with a supply voltage rated between 100 and 240 Volt. When the power supply is switched ON, the green led lights up. After about 45 seconds (depending on the network status) since the power has been switched on, the EMSCOPE is ready for use.
The front panel of the EMSCOPE has three LEDs, which provide some information to the user:
The operating environment of the receiver is specified to be within the following limits:
The instrument should be stored and shipped in a clean, dry environment which is specified to be within the following limitations:
If the instrument should be returned to EMZER for service, please complete the service questionnaire enclosed with the User Manual and attach it to the instrument.
To minimize the repair time, be as specific as possible when describing the failure. If the failure only occurs under certain conditions, explain how to duplicate the failure.
If possible, reusing of the original packaging to ship the equipment is preferable.
In case other package should be used, ensure to wrap the instrument in heavy paper or plastic.
Use a strong shipping box and use enough shock absorbing material all around the equipment to provide a firm cushion and prevent movement in the shipping box; in particular protect the front panel.
Seal the shipping box securely.
Mark the shipping box FRAGILE to encourage careful handling.
Use a clean, dry, non-abrasive cloth for external cleaning of the equipment.
To clean the equipment do not use any solvent, thinner, turpentine, acid, acetone or similar matter to avoid damage to external plastic or display surfaces.
To allow correct equipment ventilation, ensure that the vent grids on the side and on the bottom of the equipment are free by any obstructing object.
EMSCOPE is delivered from factory ready to use. After removing the instrument from its cardboard shipping box, the user must perform the following connections before switching it on:
After having done these connections, the instrument can be switched on using the Power button properly. When doing this, the front green led lights up to indicate the instrument is correctly powered.
During a few seconds, the EMSCOPE boots and runs the firmware which manages the receiver. Once the web server is ready, the yellow led is switched on, informing that the receiver is ready to use.
EMSCOPE is a network attachable device focused on simple connectivity and quick accessibility, and it does not require the installation of any additional software:
In either case, the user will be able to access the device by its MDNS name. To this end, open the web browser in the remote computer and type the following address in the URL field:
where xxxx are the last 4 characters from the SN of your EMSCOPE. The SN is provided in the rear panel. Alternatively, if known, the IP address can also be directly written in the URL field. After the last step you will get the EMSCOPE main page as shown below (please, check Section 10: “Troubleshooting Guide” of this document if EMSCOPE cannot be reached).
Figure 4. EMSCOPE main’s page.
If the user wants to set the IP, it can be done in the configuration interface. To this end, click on the “Device Configuration” tab, and then “Network Configuration”. Alternatively, the same webpage is reacheable by typing the following address in the URL field:
where xxxx are the last 4 characters from the SN of your EMSCOPE. The SN is provided in the rear panel. The network configuration interface opens. By selecting the “Static IP configuration” option, an appearance similar to the interface shown in Figure 5 is obtained. The desired network configuration can be introduced following the described indications.
Figure 5. Network configuration interface.
Allowed static IP addresses are limited to class A and C.
|Table 2-1 Private IP Addresses|
|Class||Private Network||Subnet Mask||Address Range|
|A||10.0.0.0||255.0.0.0||10.0.0.1 - 10.255.255.254|
|C||192.168.0.0||255.255.0.0||192.168.0.1 - 192.168.255.254|
Important! Before using the EMSCOPE's built-in LISN, follow the provided Safety information. Not following it can result in important damages, serious injuries and death.
EMSCOPE must be bonded to the Protective Earth (PE) using the grounding bar placed in the rear panel. In case of using an external LISN, both need to be connected to the same PE.
To connect the EMI receivers to the built-in LISN for conducted interference measurements of an EUT, use the two N-connector bridges provided to connect the RF outputs of the LISN to the RF inputs of the receiver.
In order to avoid the unwanted tripping of the protection devices (due to the high leakage current inherently present in the LISN due to its construction made according to CISPR 16-1-2), an insulation transformer shall always be used between the mains supply and the LISN.
The built-in transient limiters are used to protect the input of the receiver from transient over voltages. Sometimes, the conducted disturbances entering the receiver through the LISN are too high - even if they cannot be seen on the EMSCOPE because they are out of the measurement bandwidth - and the associate energy is high enough to damage the input circuit. Two transient limiters (one for each line) are integrated in the system as a protection of the input from unexpected pulses and transients.
The maximum input level that the Transient Limiter support without equipment damage are 5 W (or, equivalently, 144 dBμV or 37 dBm, considering an input impedance of 50 Ω).
This section introduces the instrument interface, describes some important parameters that must be known for a suitable configuration of the instrument when configured in EMI receiver mode, and explains its main utilities.
Figure 6. EMI mode.
The EMSCOPE EMI Receiver is connected using a web browser as described above. The first time a user connects to the EMSCOPE (or when connecting using a clean session), a measurement with the default configuration is provided: one single trace measuring channel 1 (Line), RBW at 9kHz, Span 150 kHz – 30 MHz, Peak detector, Ref. Level at 100 dBμV, automatic attenuation, among other configurations.
The interface of the web app is shown in Figure 7. This interface has three important blocks. The red one contains the Main Menu, where the function keys are displayed. Each function key opens a submenu with the Action List (orange block), that is, all those settings that the user can configure for that function key. Each modification will be reflected in the Measurement Plot (blue block).
Figure 7. Web app interface.
The most relevant information regarding the measurement for each trace is provided one the trace tab, so the user can easily know what kind of measurement is currently configured. Information regarding the Center Frequency, Span and amplitude levels are reported on the top right corner.
If the user modifies the measurement configuration and closes the session, next time the user connects again to the EMSCOPE, the last configuration before closing is recovered.
Next Sections relate important considerations for the measurements and describe the relevant settings of the function keys.
For a correct measurement, be sure not to overload the EMSCOPE. Input attenuation must be properly configured considering the maximum amplitude expected at the input ports. Table 3-1 shows the maximum amplitude values that should be measured for each attenuator value to avoid distortion. If the signal surpasses this value, the EMSCOPE is saturated and will not present correct measurement values.
Important! Carefully consider that:
|Table 3-1 Maximum amplitude values|
|Attenuator value (dB)||Maximum Amplitude (dBm)||Maximum Amplitude (dBμV)|
The Reference Level sets the top magnitude value of the Measurement Plot. It can be configured in the tab Amplitude from the Main Menu. If the Input Attenuator is configured in the Automatic mode, the Reference Level automatically fixes the Attenuator value according to Table 3-1. By moving the measured signal close to the Reference Level (without overpassing it and always avoiding an overload), the best possible exploitation of the ADC's dynamic range is accomplished, obtaining more accurate measurements.
If the Input Attenuator is not set to Automatic mode, the Reference Level setting is decoupled from the input gain, which means that the gain (or attenuation) remains constant; in such cases, changing the Reference Level only influences the representation of the signal on the display through numeric scaling.
The dwell time can be found in the tab Sweep from the Main Menu. This value, expressed in seconds, defines the time that the detectors are measuring the input signal. Since all frequencies are measured simultaneously, the measurement time is equal to the dwell time. Therefore, a dwell time of 2 seconds means that the measurements are performed for 2 seconds. In addition, because the equipment is continuously measuring, the magnitudes are refreshed every 2 seconds.
EMSCOPE has been designed to allow the use up to six simultaneous detectors: two Peak, two Quasi-Peak and two Average detectors (one of each for each input line). Quasi-Peak and Average Detectors have been implemented to meet CISPR 16-1-1 Standard. All six detectors run in real time. The detectors can be selected in the tab “Trace configuration” from the Main Menu.
Each detector has its own trace. A new trace (or tab) can be opened clicking on the symbol (located just after the name of the last opened trace). Up to six traces can be opened simultaneously. Although all active traces are displayed simultaneously, they can also be hidden by clicking on the eye symbol (located just before the name of the trace): .
This detector gives the maximum level observed in each measured spectral line during the configured measurement time (dwell time).
This detector is calibrated to give the rms value of an unmodulated sinusoidal signal.
For unmodulated signals, dwell time can be configured as low as possible. For modulated o pulsed signals, the dwell time must be configured to record at least one period or pulse of the signal.
This detector gives the maximum level observed at each weighted spectral line. The spectral lines have been weighted according to CISPR 16-1-1. Depending on the selected frequency band, the detector is automatically configured to meet CISPR 16-1-1 specifications. It is calibrated to give the rms value of an unmodulated sinusoidal signal.
This detector involves long measurement times (dwell time). For CISPR 16 band A (9-150kHz) at least a dwell time of 2 seconds must be configured. For CISPR 16 band B (150kHz-30MHz), at least a dwell time of 1 second must be configured. This guarantees a correct weighting of pulsed signals with repetition frequency as low as indicated in the specifications. For unmodulated signals or faster repetition frequencies, lower dwell time can be configured.
This detector gives the weighted average level of each measured spectral line. The spectral lines have been weighted averaged according to CISPR 16-1-1. The average detector is useful to measure narrowband signals to overcome problems associated with either modulation content or the presence of broadband noise. The CISPR average detector is calibrated to give the rms value of an unmodulated sinusoidal signal.
In order to perform the correct weighting of the signal, the dwell time have to be configured long enough. For unknown signals, at least a dwell time of 1 second must be configured. This guarantees a correct weighting of pulsed signals with repetition frequency as low as indicated in the specifications.
The Resolution Bandwidth is used to select the bandwidth of the measuring filter. It is found in the tab Trace from the Main Menu. The drop-down menu allows the user to select between the CISPR bandwidths 200 Hz, 9 kHz and 120 kHz, or the MIL bandwidths 1 kHz and 10 kHz. These filters are mathematically modelled using digital techniques to be compliant to the two standards (CISPR 16-1-1 and MIL-STD-461E) Band A, B and C.
When selecting the 200-Hz or 1-kHz bandwidth filter, measurements are provided up to 150 kHz (Band A). When selecting the 9-kHz or 10-kHz bandwidth filter, measurements are provided up to 30 MHz (Band B). When selecting the 120-kHz bandwidth filter, measurements are provided up to 110 MHz (Band C).
It is possible to show measurements using two different RBW filters simultaneously. The two possibilities are:
When selecting this option, measurements from 9 kHz up to 150 kHz (band A) are done with the smaller filter (either 200 Hz or 1 kHz), and from 150 kHz to 30 MHz (band B) are done with the highest filter (9 kHz and 10 kHz).
EMSCOPE can measure line and neutral simultaneously using the three detectors for each one (that is, six detectors running simultaneously in six different traces). This is called here EMI measurements. Alternatively, modal measurements (that is, common-mode and differential-mode emissions) can also be done instead of line and neutral, using the same six detectors.
The selection between EMI and modal measurements can be done in the tab Trace Configuration from the Main Menu. L-G and N-G are the line and neutral measurements respectively. CM and DM are the common mode and differential mode respectively. It should be noted that line and neutral measurements are only done when the “EMI measurement” button is selected. Otherwise these measurements remain in a paused mode. In the same way, common-mode and differential-mode measurements are only done when the “Modal measurements” button is selected. Otherwise these measurements remain in a paused mode. The reason for that is that the same six detectors (two peak, two quasi-peak and two average) are shared between the physical and modal emissions, so that when one of them is selected, the other cannot be measured.
Losses added by external components of the measurement setup can be introduced to be considered in the measurement. External losses can be introduced and activated in the tab “Amplitude”. The user can create a table defining the external losses at different frequencies (at least two frequency points are needed). The software interpolates the table when doing the measurements so that each frequency bin is compensated suitably. To consider the external losses in the measurement plot, the option “Activate external loss attenuation” must be selected.
EMSCOPE interface has been designed to provide an optimal user experience and usability. To this end, all options have been grouped so that any measurement can be configured with the minimum number of clicks.
The user can zoom into the diagram to visualize the measurement results in greater detail.
This can be done in several ways:
Markers are available in the tab “Analyse”. To add a marker in the Measurement Plot, the user has either to write the frequency in the form of the Action List or select it by clicking on the desired position of the Measurement Plot or use the “Pk search” option that will look for the highest peak of the active measurement. Finally, click on the “New Marker” button to add the marker.
There are two types of markers: normal markers and multi-trace markers. Normal markers are placed only on the active trace. Multi-trace markers are placed on all traces simultaneously.
Delta marker (Action List) allows to compare the distance in frequency and amplitude between two markers. Besides, a Delta Table is automatically shown below the measurement plot to show all amplitude marker deltas.
Users can add and delete their own standard limits to compare the measurements with them. Since limits are usually stablished in a logarithmic sweep, when any standard is plotted, the measurement plots jump (if not already) to logarithmic scale.
This option allows to introduce the conditions of the measurement setup and the suitable parameters to automatically find the highest emission levels.
In the Setup Description the user can add information that will appear in the final report .
The button “Generate list” plots a list with the highest emission levels of the measurement. The number of peaks that will appear depend on three parameters:
When clicking on “Generate Report”, measurement results are summed up in a report that can be downloaded in a PDF format file. The user is free to add a Logo in the document.
Measurements can be downloaded in ZIP file, containing an HTML that can be opened in a browser without having to be connected to EMSCOPE, allowing further data analysis. The interface will still allow limited functionality, such as using markers or zooming the plot.
This option can be found in “Standard & Report” → “Download offline version”.
Measurements can be downloaded in a comma-separated values (CSV) format to be opened in any operating system using LibreOffice, Office or Google Docs, among others.
This option can be found in “Standard & Report” → “Download measure in CSV”.
The instrument EMSCOPE has some tools that show the health status of the instrument. In Device Configuration → Health status, the instrument shows if there has been some kind of error in its internal communications (Figure 8). When the instrument is working properly, the four comms should show “0 errors”. Sporadic and low count errors could occur, but that is part of normal operation of the device, since they are detected and corrected. If the error count is high, that could effectively indicate a malfunctioning hardware issue. Please read below.
Figure 8. Health status section.
Additionally, the user can perform a self test clicking on the button “Run self test”. In that case, a new web page is opened where all periferics are tested to check their performance. If the instrument is working properly, all tests should be passed. Note that you will not be able to use the device during this short period of time.
Figure 9. Self test.
This section introduces the oscilloscope mode and explains its main utilities. The OSC mode is activated when clicking on the OSC button
Figure 10. OSC button.
The EMSCOPE OSC mode is connected using a web browser as described above. The first time a user connects to the EMSCOPE (or when connecting using after start with default settings), a measurement with the default configuration is provided: one single trace measuring channel 1 (Line), Scale 1V/div (vertical) and 1μ/division (horizontal), among other configurations. The interface of the web app is shown in Figure 11.
Figure 11. Web app interface.
The most relevant information regarding the measurement for each trace is provided one the trace tab. Information regarding the scale and sampling frequency are reported on the top right corner.
If the user modifies the measurement configuration and closes the session, the next time the user connects again to the EMSCOPE, the last configuration before closing is recovered.
Next Sections relate important considerations for the measurements and describe the relevant settings of the function keys.
The Scale menu allows to configure the instrument for a suitable measurement. The user can select the amplitude and time division factors.
Important! The time division factor directly affects the sampling frequency of the measurement, as shown on the top right corner. For sampling frequencies below 250 Msps, aliasing can appear.
The trigger decides when the acquisition system begins acquiring, and can be used to stabilize the displayed waveform or to know if the signal reaches a certain voltage level. The trigger can be activated going to the Trigger menu and clicking on the trigger button. The red cursors indicate the required level that the voltage of the waveform need to reach in order to start the capture (Figure 12). This level can be modified dragging the cursors with the mouse or introducing the desired level in the Action List column.
Figure 12. Data capture using the trigger option.
Cursors allow the user to manually identify points on a scope trace. There are two cursors for each dimension, which allows readout of the vertical or horizontal difference value. Again, the amplitude at each cursor position relative to the channel’s offset appears along with the difference of the values, marked as ΔCursors, and the equivalent time difference in the horizontal readout field, designated ΔCursors.
Figure 13. Cursors option.
All electric and electronic devices are potential generators of EMI. The term EMI thus refers to the unintended electromagnetic energy emitted by a device which propagates itself along cables or through the air and couples with other devices that are present in the surroundings. These electromagnetic fields (conducted or radiated interference) may generate interfering currents and voltages into nearby equipment and therefore can cause possible malfunctions. In order to prevent and control such interference there are a number of national and international standards, like IEC, which specifies limits and methods of tests. Moreover, within the European Union the application of several European Norms on Electromagnetic Compatibility is enforced by law and therefore the commercialization and use of all the electric and electronic equipment is subject to the measurement of the EMC characteristics, which must be within well-defined limits.
The conducted emissions are the noise currents and voltages that propagate through the power cord or harness to other components/systems or power grid. The EMI currents (or voltages) of the two conductors relative to each other and with reference to the ground form a vector system where two kind of currents (or voltages) are present. They are:
Figure 14. Modal definition of interference: (a) DM. (b) CM.
To reduce the conducted emissions a power-line filter needs to be placed between the power-line terminals and the Equipment Under Test (EUT). In its simplest structure, it contains a X capacitor between line and neutral to mitigate the DM and a CMC and two Y capacitors from line to ground and neutral to ground to mitigate the CM.
Figure 15. Power-line filter components.
Therefore, since these filter components only have effect on one of the modal components (either CM or DM), it is important to measure the modal interference components in order to build a suitable power-line filter. Thanks to the simultaneous measurement of the line and neutral terminals, EMSCOPE is able to recover and provide the measurements of the modal emissions.
The design approach adopted for EMSCOPE is that the instrument shall be innovative, fully compliant with the relevant standards and at the same time simple and reliable to use, to be the base building block for any possible conducted-emissions system to measure and evaluate any electric or electronic device from the very first design stages to the final certification.
The need to precisely measure the conducted EMI noises forces the equipment manufactures to use reliable equipment to verify the limits imposed by the relevant standards and/or enforced by local rules. In this view the EMSCOPE receiver is the ideal solution from prototype debugging to final certification, as it fully meets all the performance criteria dictated by these standards, although it remains compact, lightweight and very easy to use. The simple connection by means of a web browser permits an immediate use of the instrument without any training or special difficulties: the operator can concentrate just on analysing the measurement results.
The EUT must be installed according to the procedures indicated in the constructor’s manual and normal operating conditions respected.
ElectroMagnetic Interference (EMI) voltage measurements on power supply lines or on signal lines are carried out by means of “Coupling Networks” (e.g. LISNs) or other transducers (e.g. voltage probes). The frequency range is dictated by the applicable standard, which goes from 9 kHz to 30 MHz in most commercial applications.
Important! Before using the LISN follow the provided Safety information. Not following it can result in important damages, serious injuries and death.
Any LISN has three main objectives:
The LISN from EMSCOPE has been designed under the CISPR 16-1-2 standard for evaluating and characterizing the operation of the EUT. It is a V-type Network with an impedance of 50 Ω/50 μH + 5 Ω. The schematic of this LISN can be seen in Figure 16. It includes additional capacitors and inductors for filtering and has an operating frequency range of 9kHz to 30MHz.
Figure 16. Schematic of the EMSCOPE’s LISN.
Figure 17 shows an example of the test setup for RFI voltage measurement according to CISPR 16-2-1. The EUT is placed on the top of a table at 0.8 m from a horizontal earthed conducting surface, and at 0.4 m from a vertical earthed conducting surface.
The LISN shall be bonded to the reference conducting surface.
A Floor standing EUT is placed 0,1 m above a horizontal earthed conducting surface of at least 2 m x 2 m in size. This size shall be exceeding by at least 0,5 m the projection of the EUT on the conducting surface.
The power cable (IEC 14 in this case) should be 1m long; longer cable should be centrally bundled for at least 40 cm.
DUTs without a PE (Protective Earth) conductor and manually operated DUTs shall be measured in conjunction with an auxiliary screen or an “Artificial Hand”, as duly specified in the relevant standards.
All the details and information on the test setup are written on the latest version of the applicable Standard.
Figure 17. Test setup for RFI voltage measurement.
A step-by-step example of a conducted test manually performed is the following:
To avoid errors caused by ambient interference, measurements should be carried out inside a properly shielded room. Different sites, like basements or other rooms with low ambient interference, are often enough for a preliminary evaluation.
Conducted measurements do not strictly require any anechoic environment.
To update the firmware, access the main interface, go to “Device configuration” and click on “Update Device”; optionally type the following address in the URL field:
where xxxx are the last 4 characters from the SN of your EMSCOPE. The SN is provided in the rear panel. A web interface similar to that shown in Figure 18 appears.
If EMSCOPE has access to http://emzer.com/, the user will be notified and prompted to update the device automatically once the user authorizes it.
If the EMSCOPE can’t reach the Internet, the user can manually download the latest firmware image from http://emzer.com/updates and upload it to the EMSCOPE by clicking on the “manual update” link and selecting the update file with the “Choose File” button.
Figure 18. Web interface for an image updating.
The EMSCOPE software consists in a WebSocket server listening on port 8010 of the machine, and a web server listening on the standard http port 80 that serves the frontend html and related files.
Maintenance of the equipment is limited to external components such as cables.
During operation, inside the equipment there are DANGEROUS voltages that could be contacted. To prevent electrical shock, do not open the equipment.
Clean the exterior of the equipment using a damp cloth and mild cleaner. Always unplug the unit before cleaning.
Product may be opened only by authorized, specially trained personnel. Before performing any work on the unit, this must be disconnected from the mains. Only technical personnel authorized by EMZER can perform any adjustments, replacement of parts or repair.
To make the connection to the EMSCOPE devices as easy as possible, the protocol MDNS is used. Thanks to it, the user only needs to type the following address in the URL field for the connection:
where xxxx are the last 4 characters from the SN of the EMSCOPE.
In some specific scenarios, the MDNS can fail, obtaining something similar to:
Figure 1. Web text shown when EMSCOPE is not reached.
There are multiple reasons for this behavior. To overcome this problem, please, follow the steps below:
If the EMSCOPE is properly connected and switched on, but it cannot be reached yet, try the following steps:
Having a LAN with a proxy server can be a reason to reach the EMSCOPE when using the IP but not when using the MDNS address. To overcome this problem, please read the following Section.
In case of using Windows 10 connected to a LAN with a proxy server, the MDNS will not work (only works writing directly the IP address of the EMSCOPE in the web browser). Windows does not exclude the local website addresses like intranet or localhost from proxy by default. To bypass the proxy, follow the steps of one of the options below:
Figure 2. Control Panel Category View.
Figure 3. Open Internet Options from Control Panel.
Figure 4. LAN Settings in Windows 10.
Figure 5. Setup Proxy Server in Windows 10.
Figure 6. Provide Exceptions in Proxy.
Figure 7. Manual Proxy Server Setup.
All the browsers like Chrome, Edge and IE use the computer’s network settings for proxy. However, Firefox has standalone browser settings that allow you to add proxy and exceptions within the browser. Remember, this method is effective only within Firefox browser and your computer’s network will still follow the default settings from Internet Options.
Figure 8. Firefox Network Settings.
Figure 9. Setup Proxy in Mozilla Firefox.
Thank you for purchasing an EMZER’s product. You now own a high-quality instrument that will give you many years of reliable service. EMZER recognizes the importance of the Customer as reason of existence; in this view, any comment and suggestion you would like to submit to the attention of our service organization is kept in great consideration. Moreover, we are continuously improving our quality, but we know this is a never-ending process. We would be glad if our present efforts are pleasing you. Should one of your pieces of EMZER equipment need servicing you can help us serve you more effectively filling out this card and enclosing it with the product. Nevertheless, even this product will eventually become obsolete. When that time comes, please remember that electronic equipment must be disposed of in accordance with local regulations. This product conforms to the WEEE Directive of the European Union (2002/96/EC) and belongs to Category 9 (Monitoring and Control Instruments). You can return the instrument to us free of charge for proper environment friendly disposal. You can obtain further information from your local EMZER Sales Partner or by visiting our website at www.emzer.com.
Technical contact person:
Accessories returned with unit: